Data Section & Variables
The Data Section
The data section is where global variables are declared (you can use them anywhere in your program). If no variables are declared, the data section can be skipped altogether.
The data section is defined and preceded by the
An empty data section looks like this:
On every line within the data section (that is, on every line after the
keyword and before the
procedure keyword) one and only one variable can be
The syntax for declaring a variable in LDPL is:
Variable naming schemes and data types will be explained later on this document.
A data section cannot contain anything but variable declarations, comments and empty lines. An example data section may end up looking like this:
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Variable Data Types
LDPL natively supports the scalar number and text data types. It also supports containers of said scalar types: maps and lists, combined in any way.
Variables may be declared, as stated above, using the syntax:
within the data section. The name of a data type is composed of either a scalar data type name (number or text) or a container type plus one or more scalar or container type names. For example:
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In the case above, foobar is a map of lists of text values.
The Number Data Type
The number data type, as its name suggests, depicts numeric values. It's recommended that it be represented internally as a binary64 double-precision floating-point format number as defined by the IEEE 754.
Both variables and numeric constants can be members of the number type.
Valid number literals must begin with a decimal value (for example 5 or 0.12, .12 wouldn't be a valid number) and may be preceded by a minus sign for negative numbers (-5, -567.912). Numbers may not be preceded by a plus sign (+5 is not a valid number literal). The literal -0 is implicitly transformed into 0.
The Text Data Type
The text data type, as its name suggests, represents alphanumeric strings. In the interest of supporting as many locales as possible, texts should be utf-8 encoded to be compatible with Unicode. A text maximum length for text values is explicitly not defined and it should be limited only by the amount of available memory on the system. Strings in LDPL are enclosed between two "quotes".
LDPL strings may contain multiple escape sequences / control characters in them. Each escape sequence counts as only one character. The available escape sequences are:
\a= alert (bell)
\t= horizontal tab
\n= newline / line feed
\v= vertical tab
\f= form feed
\r= carriage return
\e= non-standard GCC escape
\0= null byte
\\= \ character
\"= " character
For example, the string
"hello,\nworld" will be displayed as
when printed to the console.
The List Data Type
The list data type is a collection of number or text values, or containers
of possibly more containers of said types. Values can be pushed to lists and
then be accessed and modified using the
: operator. List indexes consist of
integer numbers. The first index of a list is index 0, and the rest count up to
the length of the list minus one.
Lists, as collections of number or text values (or collections of said types), can only have one defined type at any given time: text or number. A single list is not capable of storing both numeric and alphanumeric values.
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display statement prints values to the screen. While it will be
explained in more detail later, the line
the value of
foo:0 (the index
0 of the list
foo) followed by
a line break (
In most other languages, you may have to declare a list and specify how many elements or components it contains. In such languages, the declaration causes a contiguous block of memory to be allocated for that many elements. LDPL lists, however, are different: they are dynamic. This means that you can store as many values as you want in a single list without fear of running out of place (of course, this is limited by the memory allocated by your operating system for your LDPL program).
Suppose you store the values
"I love" and
"LDPL, it's great!" in a
text list, in that particular order. Then the
contents of the list and the index associated with each element will be
We have shown the pairs in order because their order is relevant: if you added
a new element to the list, it would be inserted after the last element, thus
being associated with index
To add values to a list, you must first push them to the list. For example,
if you want to add the numbers
30 to a
number list, your
code should look like this:
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Values in lists can be stored and accessed just like any other variable
(see the store - in statement for further details) using the
This operator indicates what index of the list we are writing to or reading
from. Here we declare a
number list and store the values
it, and then replace the number
5 by the number
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push statement adds a value at the end of a list. Also, the
- in statement stores a value in a variable. These two statements will
be explained in more detail in their respective sections of this document.
Please note that as a list is variable that's a collection of values, a single index of a list is a variable in itself. This means that any subindex of a list that resolves to a scalar value be used in any position where you could use a variable of the same type of that value. So, if you have something like this:
You could use a
number list with a defined sub-index (for example, in the
myList:0) where it says number-var, just like in
store - in examples in the code extracts above.
In the list statements section, you'll find a collection of statements that can be used to work with lists.
The Map Data Type
The map data type is a collection of number or text values. Maps superficially resemble lists but with fundamental differences. The biggest one is that any number or string in LDPL may be used as an array index, not just consecutive integers. Also, values in maps have no order.
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Maps, as collections of number or text values (or collections of said types), can only have one defined type at any given time: text or number. A single map is not capable of storing both numeric and alphanumeric values.
Unlike lists, maps are associative. This means that each map is a
collection of pairs: a key and its corresponding element. For example,
you could have a
number map with the following contents:
We have shown the pairs in jumbled order because their order is irrelevant. One advantage of maps is that new pairs can be added at any time. maps can be sparse: they can have missing keys (say for example you have keys 1 and 5, but don't have keys 2, 3 and 4). Another consequence of maps is that the keys don't necessarily have to be positive integers. Any number, or even a string, can be a key.
Values in maps can be stored and accessed just like any other variable
(see the store - in statement for further details) using the
This operator indicates what key of the map we are writing to or reading from.
Here we declare a
number map and store the values
-10.2 in the
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As stated before, map keys don't always have to be constant numbers. They can also be number variables, text and text variables, or even sub-indexes of lists or elements from other maps. For example:
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In fact, when you use a number value as a subindex for a map, it is silently
casted into a text value. For example,
myMap:1 will be interpreted (an thus,
the same) as
Please note that as a map is variable that's a collection of values, a single key of a map is a variable in itself. This means that any key of a map that resolves to a scalar value can be used in any position where you could use a variable of the same type of that value. So, if you have something like this:
You could use a
number map with a particular key where it says number-var,
just like in the
store - in examples in the code extracts above
As you'll see in the Default Variable Values section, you can access undeclared keys of a map, just like if they were declared. See the following example:
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In the example above,
0 will be printed and no errors displayed during
compilation, even though the key
myMap hasn't been explicitly
declared. This is because when you try to access an element that hasn't
been declared yet, LDPL declares it for you and initializes it to its type
It's important to note that this very feature is a double-edged weapon. While you can use it to access uninitialized map keys, you cannot check if a value exists in a map without initializing it if it wasn't there before. Statements like store key count of and store keys of are provided as means to overcome this situation.
In the map statements section, you'll find a collection of statements that can be used to work with maps.
In older versions of LDPL, maps were called vectors. Starting from LDPL 3.1.0 Diligent Dreadnoughtus, they have been renamed to reflect the real data structure they represent. While it might still be possible to call them vectors in code, and legacy code that declares maps as vectors is and will continue to be supported, this nomenclature is deprecated and shouldn't be used anymore.
As stated before, "The name of a data type is composed of either a scalar data type name (number or text) or a container type plus one or more scalar or container type names." This means that you can declare variables like:
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These variables are called multicontainers. Multicontainers hold other
containers, which can hold more containers or scalar values to an arbitrary
depth. For example, a
map of lists of text is a map that holds lists
of text values. You may access a value stored in a
map of lists of text
hi is the key used to access a list stored in the map, and
index used to access a text value stored in the list that was stored in the
If you want to push a list to a
list of lists or a map to a
list of maps you
must use the
push list to _ and
push map to _ statements, respectively:
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These will be explained in more detail in their respective sections.
The LDPL compiler supports plural data-type names, as shown above. One can
numbers instead of
texts instead of
lists instead of
list of list of number is the same as a
list of lists of numbers.
In LDPL 4.3, multicontainers were introduced with a right-to-left syntax.
map of list of text was defined as
text list map. This syntax is
Default Type Values
In LDPL, each variable is initialized with a value by default. This means that when you declare a variable, it will, by default, hold this value until it's changed.
- Number variables are initialized with the value
0. Each element of a number map is a number variable, and thus also initialized to
- Text variables are initialized to the empty string
"". The same goes for text maps, where each element it contains is also initialized to
- Lists are initialized empty by default and trying to access a non-existing index will result in an error.
- Keys of Maps of Lists (
map of list) are declared as empty lists of the scalar type of the multicontainer by default.
Some variables in LDPL are already declared for you without you having to declare them. These variables are the argv text list, and the errorcode and errortext variables.
The argv list variable
Every LDPL program comes with the
argv text list variable declared by
If you pass command line arguments to your LDPL compiled program (running, for
example, something like
myBinary argument1 argument2), the values stored
argv list (argument vector) will be the values of each argument
passed (in this case,
"argument1" will be stored in
argv is a text list, the values passed as arguments are
always stored as text, even numbers.
Naturally, if no arguments are passed to the program, the
argv list will be
The errorcode and errortext variables
Some LDPL operations may fail when executed. Maybe you tried loading a file
that wasn't there or getting the ASCII value of a multi-byte emoji. These
operations make use of the
errortext variables to
tell you if they ran successfully or not.
errortext variables come declared by default.
Some statements may modify their values to express their results.
errorcode variable is a number variable. It will hold the value 0
if the statement ran successfully, and any other number if it did not.
errortext variable is a text variable that will be empty if the
statement ran successfully. If it did not, it will store a human readable
description of what went wrong.
errortext variables can be read and written like any other
When handling error checks, please bear in mind that the content of the
errortext variable may change in future releases of LDPL. The value
errorcode, however, will not change and so that's the value
that should be used to check whether an operation ran successfully or not.